Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Impact of Prohibition on Society in the 1920s - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1328 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Prohibition Essay Did you like this example? The Noble Experiment America began a 13-year dry spell by enacting the 18th amendment on January 17th, 1920. This amendment prohibited the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcoholic beverages. President Herbert Hoovers described Prohibition as a great social and economic experiment, noble in motive and far-reaching in purpose. (1) Prohibition became known as the Noble Experiment of Prohibition. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Impact of Prohibition on Society in the 1920s" essay for you Create order There were many reasons that brought about the prohibition of alcohol. One of the most recognized was the idea that alcohol was bringing about a breaking down of the social structure both in the community and in the home. It has been noted that the founding of the United States began with booze. For example, the ship Arbella, which arrived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, had more than 10,000 gallons of wine in its hold for 700 settlers. It also carried three times as much beer as water. (2) This was just the beginning of Americas drinking problems that lead to the founding of many organization, mostly religiously motivated, that started the crusade to eliminate alcohol. Some of these organizations include, the founding of the Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the rise of the Anti-Saloon League (ASL) and various other anti-liquor forces. The most influential of these organization was credited to the (ASL), led by Protestant ministers and influenced by Eliza Thompson. This organization used religious rhetoric in order to fuel the fire of intolerance that was already a part of the Baptist and Methodist teachings. This religiously motivated push by the anti-liquor organizations provided the most effective political pressure. This pressure was one of the catalysts that sparked The Noble Experiment. Economic Changes The impact on the American economy also saw a few changes and most of them were largely negative. Keeping this in mind there were also many positive changes. One of these changes was that the average wage earner in America was not spending their hard-earned pay in the saloon and had more disposable income to spend on other less harmful devices. As a result, banks showed an increase in their total deposits. Building and loan association members increased during this period from 3,103,935 to 11,336,261, and industrial insurance policies in force from 31,134,303 to 81,777,84 Building and loan association members increased during this period from 3,103,935 to 11,336,261, and industrial insurance policies in force from 31,134,303 to 81,777,843.3. (3) Another positive impact on the work force brought about an interesting and mostly positive impact on industry itself. Herman Feldman, assistant professor of industrial relations at Dartmouth in the 1920s did an investigation of research done at Yale University by questioner that points out some impacts. Feldman concluded that there were less discipline problems, fewer people were absent from work following pay day, and the work force as a group were stronger and more focused. Although alcohol didnt disappear and drinking still occurred after the implementation of the 18th amendment, the work force was improved because the sale of alcohol was much less prevalent and saloon life declined dramatically. Impact on Crime Crime in America was an issue before the 18th amendment was put into place. There were many organizations that fought for this prohibition to take place and crime was a platform that many used when lobbying. Unfortunately, society didnt see the results that they had originally hoped to see. Violent crime, public intoxication and gambling were some of the issues America had to deal with when the saloon lifestyle was at its height. The largely Protestant movement against these saloons wanted to clean up the streets and saw the saloon as their battlefield of choice. Once the amendment was enacted the legal saloon died and brought a rise to a different type of crime. Americans didnt give up their alcohol as easily as one may think. The saloon was dead, but a new watering hole developed. Illegal bars sprung up quickly and flourished in big cities. The new establishments referred to as speakeasys were places that were a form of underground saloon and were filled with thirsty Americans trying to hold on to the saloon lifestyle. The crime that was spawned from the newly implemented law didnt take long to rear its ugly head, it was only an hour when the police recorded the first attempt to break it, with six armed men stealing some $100,000-worth of medicinal whisky from a train in Chicago. Crime changed, and organized crime transformed with it. Gangs in some of the big cities saw the opportunity that prohibition brought them, and they began to stockpile alcohol before it was illegal. These gangs brought fame to some people like Al Capone and Arnold Rothstein. Both gangsters opened speakeasys, casinos and other illegally operated facilities that got alcohol into the hands of the American people. Public Health It should be no surprise that the health of the American people suffered from imbibing excessive amounts of alcohol. Shortly after the implementation of prohibition the rate of consumption was dropped by approximately 30% but this trend didnt stick around for long and it is estimated that it shot up another 60-70 percent of its pre-prohibition numbers. Although there was only a small widow when alcohol consumption declines, the overall benefits to the public health was not overwhelming. Unfortunately, the studies regarding public health that have been done are based on information that is not 100% accurate there is enough to see the significance in a couple areas. When it comes to cirrhosis of the liver do to alcohol consumption the data is insignificant, but for deaths due to alcohol and admittance for alcohol related psychosis the data was measurable. After his research of the statistics from 1920-1927 Dr. Dublin states: The condition we have found to exist in the mortality of adult men in the United States is entirely consistent with the observations universally confirmed of a continued widespread indulgence in alcoholic beverages by men. Prohibition has not been particularly effective in that sex. If the saloon has gone and the great body of men no longer spend a large part of their wages on liquor, it is only too clear that what they drink now, even if in smaller quantities and at a lesser total cost, is of such a deleterious character as to result in no advantage to their health. The quality of liquor used throughout the country is sufficiently bad to make up for the smaller quantity consumed. The economic gains help us to understand the condition among women and children; the character of the present supply of liquor helps us to understand the lack of improvement which appears in the mortality of men. (4) Unintended Consequences Prohibition has some consequences that were not intended and may have been unforeseen. A lot of these anomalies occurred because of exception and oversights of the 18th amendment. The amendment didnt outlaw the consumption of alcohol and it allowed for private production in certain occupation such as farming, medicine and industrial use. An couple examples would be with the catholic church being able to produce wine for communion and farmers making fruit juice concentrate that was fermented. The loss of tax revenue was also another impact that was unintended. Alcohol production was the fifth largest industry in the United States at the time of prohibition. Although a national income tax was implemented in 1914 there was a large decline in tax money to fund the government after prohibition went into effect. Prohibition cost the federal government $11 billion in lost tax revenue. And it cost over $300 million to enforce. (5) The enactment of the 18th amendment lead to so some unintended consequences LAST CALL The Rise and Fall of Prohibition By Daniel Okrent 1. Herbert Hoover, The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover: The Cabinet and the Presidency 1920-1933. (New York: MacMillan,1952), 95. 2. Daniel Okrent, American Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition 1.Boeckel, R. (1928). Social and economic effects of prohibition. Editorial research reports 1928 (Vol. IV). Washington, DC: CQ Press. Retrieved from https://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre1928103100 2.Dublin, Health and Wealth, A Survey of the Economics of World Health, p. 305 3.Lerner, M. Prohibition. PBS website.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay On Abigail Williams - 1743 Words

Zyenne Bailey May 9, 2017 English III 4TH Period Salem Witch Trials: Abigail Williams Abigail Williams, aged 11 or 12 in 1692, played a major role in the Salem Witch trials as one of the prominent accusers. She lived with her uncle, the Rev. Samuel Parris, Salem Village s minister. Although it was ordinary practice for young girls to live with relatives to learn about housewifery, we know very little about Abigail, including where she was born and who her parents were.The traditional story about the beginning of the Salem Witch trials tells of a circle of young girls practicing voodoo and fortune telling under the direction of Samuel Parris Indian slave, Tituba. It is commonly suggested that the girls were interested in fortune†¦show more content†¦When the girls strange behavior continued, Parris summoned Dr. William Griggs to examine them. Dr. Griggs determined that the girls were under the influence of an Evil Hand.With talk of witchcraft spreading in the Village, the girls were questioned about who was afflicting them. On February 29th 1692, a formal complaint was issued against Tituba, Sarah Osborne, and Sarah Good for afflicting Betty, Abigail, and other local girls such as Ann Putnam, Jr. who had began to suffer fits. Abigail Williams along with the other afflicted girls appeared at the trial hearings. In the presence of Good, Tituba, and Osborne Abigail suffered fits and outbursts. Abigail testified she saw the apparition of said Sarah Good at her examination pinch Elizabeth Hubbard and set her into fits and also Elizabeth Parris and Ann Putnam, Shortly after the group of girls began listening to Tituba s stories about the devil, they began having fits and acting like animals. Tituba was a Native American woman who became the Parris family s slave in 1691. By 1692, she had become an old lady with a husband named John Indian. Some say that they also had a daughter named Violet.The girls were examined by Reverend John Hale. There was no explanation for the girls fits, so Hale concluded that the fits were caused by the Devil. Many people were frightened and wanted to get rid of the devil as fast as possible, so Salem started the witch-hunts.After the girls began having fits, theyShow MoreRelatedAbigail Williams in The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay1710 Words   |  7 PagesAnalyse the ways in which Miller presents the character of Abigail Williams? During this essay I will introduce the main points involved in answering the proposed question. I will explore the certain aspects of Abigail’s personality and how it is an important role in portraying her reasons for her actions. I will also analyse the ways in which Abigail’s personality changes through the progression of the play. I will sum up which points have a bigger effect on her intentions and motivations andRead MoreAbigail Williams and Hester Prynne Essay786 Words   |  4 PagesPower: A Compare and Contrast of Hester Prynne and Abigail Williams Abigail Williams and Hester Prynne were two very different characters in books about the same Puritan religion. The two had many differences and even a few ways they were alike. Their views on society and their reaction on how they reacted to the way they were treated by the Puritans. Hester feared society and thought that it was something to be avoided, while Abigail long to be the center of attention. While Hester attractedRead MoreEssay about Abigail Williams relationship with John Proctor1969 Words   |  8 PagesLook at Abigail Williams relationship with John Proctor. The crucible by Arthur Miller Look at Abigail Williams relationship with John Proctor. What effect does this have on his relationship with Elizabeth? What dramatic effect does her actions have? 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Arthur Miller has created an interesting and complex character with various personality traits, and her controlling and manipulative nature becomes evident for the audience during the very first scene. Abigail is first introduced as â€Å"seventeen, a strikingly beautiful girl, an orphan†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , already the audience is made to feelRead MoreEssay on Abigail Williams in Arthur Millers The Crucible2364 Words   |  10 PagesAbigail in Arthur Millers The Crucible The Crucible is a play based upon the events that occurred in Salem circa 1690s. The witch trials were not just in America, but occurred in Europe too. Arthur Miller wrote this play, and also wrote the screenplay for the movie based on his play script. This has been produced in theatres countless times, as it is so dramatic, and appeals to audiences. We are introduced to the character of Abigail Williams in the very first scene. This shows thatRead MoreAbigail Williams in The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay3744 Words   |  15 Pages Abigail Williams is the troubled niece of Reverend Parris of Salem. She is an orphan; made so by brutal natives who killed her parents before her very eyes. The witch-hunt begins when Abigail is at the age of seventeen. She has a large role in this novel, especially on these dark events and also her relationship with John Proctor. In my opinion from what I have understood from the text she is a tempestuous character. She is initially perceived as being wild bright and proud. Her character

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bernhard Schlink’s Novel Free Essays

In Bernhard Schlink’s 1955 novel, the reader, the conflict between condemnation and understanding is one of the overarching themes. In this story, Michael falls in love with Hannah Schmitz but further in the story realizes that she has played an important role in a terrible nazi event. He has trouble understanding what he is feeling. We will write a custom essay sample on Bernhard Schlink’s Novel or any similar topic only for you Order Now The book explores this conflict in court, this conflict between the two lovers, and finally a takeaway that each individual reader has to understand for himself. Although the conflict is present during the whole body of literature, it takes place in different situations which different conclusions. While Hannah is put on trial, she is confused. As she is illiterate, she decides to take the fall for all of the events even though she didn’t do the whole thing. She doesn’t realize that it was as bad as it actually was. It is made clear in the text that doing nothing to stop the events is the same thing as participating in them. QUOTE In this case, the reader feels sympathy for her, she doesn’t have mens rea, only the actus rea, as she was simply following orders. The courtroom is confused at first but then condemns her for a life in jail as they cant be undecided and have en liquet. The case has been resolved in criminal court. Furthermore, there are some strong feelings of shame throughout the text. Indeed, the second generation is finally learning what actually happened and has to deal with the first generation. It is seen with â€Å"Whatever validity the concept of collective guilt may or may not have, morally and legally— for my generation of students it was a lived reality. It did not just apply to what had happened in the Third Reich. (†¦) Pointing at the guilty parties did not free us from shame, but at least it overcame the suffering we went through on account of it.† This quote shows the clear difficulties that the second generation has to put up with in order to bear the first generation. This almost sounds like an alliteration with the multiple â€Å"p†, â€Å"g†, and â€Å"t† sounds. This makes the reading more difficult and highlights the difficulty for the generations to overcome this incident. Michael has difficulty feeling true anger because of his love for Hannah. The love story is a metaphor for the clear uncomfortable cohabitation between the 2 generations. The conflict spreads from the court room to the two protagonists. Michael feels guilty of loving her. This is seen with â€Å"I had to point at Hanna. But the finger I pointed at her turned back to me. I had loved her. Not only had I loved her, I had chosen her. (†¦) But love of our parents is the only love for which we are not responsible.† This shows the difficulty Michael has to continue on with his life. His brain is haunted by Hannah and his felling of being guilty. It is not resolved as ever since she was on trial, they didn’t have a conversation, there was no closure. He has to understand that that he has to accept what has happened and move forward. â€Å"I wanted simultaneously to understand Hanna’s crime and to condemn it. But it was too terrible for that. When I tried to understand it, I had the feeling I was failing to condemn it as it must be condemned. When I condemned it as it must be condemned, there was no room for understanding.† Pg 57. This shows that Michael has difficulty choosing between condemning and understanding, which concludes in an unresolved affair. He clearly feels guilty about the affair with Hanna, it is something which he can’t yet reveal to anyone. Michael is condemned because his whole life is now based around this incident. He is unable to sustain a real relationship and is confused. In order to move forward, Germany and its people have to deal with the nazi events. After she leaves Michael, he very clearly still loves her due to his constant thoughts and longing for her. During the trial, he observes her, just like when he first saw her which shows that his love for her never died, it must have camouflaged itself while he tried to distract himself from it. There is a large amount of sadness that Michael had from the fact that Hanna kept things from Michael such as her illiteracy and involvement in the holocaust, especially when it appeared he trusted her with a lot. His guilt comes from her whereas her guilt comes from herself. Moreover, he, along with the surviving daughter donates the inherited money to a jewish charity for illiteracy. The daughter doesn’t accept the money because if she does, it means that she forgives her and would release her of the responsibility. However it is not resolved, Germany lives with this past forever. â€Å"There’s no need to talk about it, because the truth of what one says lies in what one does.† The reader is left with his own understanding with his own experiences. His way of moving forward is with the charity, and researching to come to peace with the coexistence of the two generations. As he is feeling all of this guilt, it shows that he condemns himself and doesn’t understand his position. Hannah feels guilty of being illiterate, it is seen as she wants people to read to her so that she can learn. There are probably past events that she doesn’t own up to, because she never answers clearly when Michael asks about her past. Throughout the novel, there is reference to Hanna bathing a lot, this could simply be a metaphor for her trying to wash away the guilt from her past actions. Hannah or everybody else was put in the trolley situation. They could have either gotten killed or killed all of the people in the church. She condemns herself as she commits suicide. however, â€Å"only the dead understand†, she is trying to further understand and conclude this conflict by achieving this act. To conclude, the conflict between condemnation and understanding is like a dilemma. Characters struggle trying to do both but in the end they are only able to adopt one. Michael decides to understand whereas Hannah condemns herself. Overall, it is not resolved and Germany has to live with this heritage forever. However, it is not as intense today as it was for the second generation in the novel. The book explores this conflict in court, this conflict between the two lovers, and finally a takeaway that each individual reader has to understand for himself. Although the conflict is present during the whole body of literature, it takes place in different situations which different conclusions. For me, as a reader, having family going through the surviving daughter’s situation, I believe that it is time to forgive but not to forget How to cite Bernhard Schlink’s Novel, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Nursing Case Study Evident From he Symptoms

Question: Discuss about the Case Study for Nursing Case for Evident From he Symptoms. Answer: Alzheimers Disease Alzheimers Disease (AD) is a form of dementia that results in the problems with behavior, thinking and memory. The symptoms of the disease develop gradually and tend to worsen over the time that gets severe enough to end up with interfering with the daily life activities (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). It is the commonest form of dementia that affects the intellectual abilities and holds up to 60 to 80 percent of the cases of dementia which is expected expand largely by 2050 (Appendix 1). Although it is not a normal part of increasing age, however, the biggest risk factor for the pathogenesis of the disease is increasing age and majority of the patients suffering from the disease are found in the age 65 years or older (Healthdirect.gov.au, 2016). It is a progressive disease that worsens gradually worsens over the time and becomes evident from the symptoms. The early stages of the disease are marked with mild memory loss and the later stage is characterized by the loss of ability of the individual to carry out the conversation in response to their environment (Aihw.gov.au, 2016). The prevalence of AD in Australia is 353,800 which is expected to reach 400,000 in five years. It has been identified as the second leading cause of the death of the people in Australia and three out of ten people who are above the age of 85 are suffering from AD and dementia (Fightdementia.org.au, 2016). The pathophysiology of the disease begins with the fact that the brain of the patient exhibits marked atrophy with a shrinkage of the gyri and widening of the sulci. It involves the entire cerebral cortex sparing the occipital pole. Ventricular dilation becomes apparent with thinning of the cortical ribbon in the temporal horn because of the atrophy of the hippocampus and amygdala (Jack et al., 2013). On the microscopic level, the large cortical neurons shrink resulting in a significant loss of neurons. The critical pathological substrate of the disease is shrinkage of the dendritic arbor of the bigger neurons with neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. These tangles and plaques act by damaging the healthy brain cells surrounding them causing the brain to shrink and death of the damaged cells. This death and destruction of the nerve cells result in problems in performing the daily life activities, changes in personality and memory failure (Burnham et al., 2016). There are a number of risk factors that results in the development of the disease in the individual and this includes lifestyle, environment, genetics and age. These factors have a different effect on different people and some of them can be controlled or changed while others are not. Age is the most prominent risk factor responsible for the development of AD and the risk is known to double every five years after the attainment of the age of 65 (Jack, 2013). The fastest growing age group has been found among the aged population above 85 years. Genes have a crucial role to play in the development of AD as it controls the early and late onset of the disease. While the early onset of the disease is less common, late onset constitutes the major portion of the occurrence of the disease (Reitz Mayeux, 2014). Air pollution has a link with the occurrence of AD as the analyzed amyloid plaques have revealed many environmental pollutants like nickel and aluminum. Lifestyle factors including ob esity, hypertension, diet lacking in vegetables and fruits and lack of exercise act as risk factors for the development of AD. Apart from these factors, the other factors include head injury, Down syndrome and family history that promote the development of the disease (Burnham et al., 2016). Assessment of Alzheimers Disease AD can be diagnosed by examination of the brain of the patient by an autopsy and therefore, it is difficult to carry out the diagnosis in the condition. However, brain imaging techniques can be helpful in this regard for tracing the amyloid plaques present in the living brain and is rapidly becoming a practice in Australia as AD is predicted to take an enormous shape in near future (Appendix 2). Specific assessment data based on history, physical exam and investigation has to be collected and the details have been presented below. Table 1: Specific assessment data for Alzheimers disease History Physical Examination Investigation Focused history: Cognitive problems, onset of memory, safety concerns, current functioning, behavioral issues and patterns of losses. Orthostatic blood pressure, vision and hearing screens Laboratory tests: Glucose, serum electrolytes, drug levels, CBC, TSH and BUN/creatinine Past medical history: Neurological conditions, head trauma and risk factors. Neurologic exam: Pathologic reflexes, deep tendon, localized findings, tremor, muscle tone and strength and cranial nerves Diagnostic tests: Treatment of depression, removal of offending medications Family and social history ------ ----- Medication history ------ ----- Source: (Loewenstein, 2013) Assessment tests for AD are essential as some of the pathological conditions tend to mimic AD that includes brain tumors and strokes, depression, drug reactions and thyroid problems. Therefore, early diagnosis and detection are recommended for AD. Three major problems associated with AD are disturbed thought process, chronic confusion and impaired verbal communication. The disturbed thought process is characterized by disorientation to circumstance, person, place and time, inability to reason, decreased ability to conceptualize or reason and memory loss. Chronic confusion is characterized by decreased ability for the interpretation of the environment, decreased thought capacity, disorientation and memory impairment. Impaired verbal communication is characterized by disorientation to person, anxiety, flight of ideas and repetitive speech. These signs and symptoms begin in the early stage of the disease, progresses over the middle stage and worsen over the later stage of the disease (Karantzoulis Galvin, 2014). Nursing diagnoses for AD are vital for the management of the disease as it worsens over the time. Patients need total care as not only them but also their family members fall under stress with the behavior of the patient. The nursing diagnoses for AD begin with bowel and urinary elimination as it is related to the loss of neurological function and muscle tone. Failure to determine the location of the bathroom and identification of their needs forms the essential diagnoses of AD. Sensory changes are also responsible for the disturbed sleep patterns that the patients face due to AD. Reduced muscle strength or tone and neuromuscular damage cause impaired physical mobility (Howard et al., 2015). Physical limitations and cognitive decline cause self-care deficit and it is another crucial nursing diagnosis for AD. Changes in the integration, transmission and reception results in disturbed sensory perception and is responsible for AD. Altered thought process is a result of irreversible neur onal degeneration and ineffective coping of the individuals is the result of incapability of the individual to resolve the intellectual changes and issues. Impaired verbal communication is related to the intellectual changes that includes disorientation and dementia. The ability of the individual to cope with the problems of life decreases. Emotional changes like lack of confidence and irritability is a result of impaired social interaction. Inability to identify and recognize the environmental hazards and weakness increases the risk for injury. Easy to forget and sensory changes cause imbalanced nutrition that reduces the intake of necessary nutrients required for the normal functioning of the body (Farina, Rusted Tabet, 2014). The exact cause of AD is yet not understood however, the nursing diagnoses help identify the disease and provide the required intervention as immediate treatment is a must for AD or it starts to worsen over the period. Goal of Nursing Care Since AD is incurable, therefore, the chief goals of the nursing care process are maintenance of the quality of life, maximizing the functions in the daily activities, fostering a safe environment and promotion of the social engagement. Based on the clinical reasoning cycle, the three discussed problems needs the description of the proposed action plan, the desired outcome and a time frame for the establishment of a goal. The proposed action plan has been discussed as the nursing intervention and since AD has no treatment, therefore, no time frame can be fixed for the duration of nursing care (Hartley et al., 2015). For disturbed thought process, the desired outcome is appropriate maintenance of the psychological and mental functioning of the patient for the maximum possible duration and reversal of the behavior as evident. After the nursing intervention, the patient is expected to have improved thought processing and its maintenance at the baseline level. Since AD is associated with behavioral problems, therefore the goal will include identification and control of the problem. Chronic confusion has the desired outcome of minimal dementia manifestations of reduced cognitive impairment and confusion. The patient will have a safe and stable environment for routine scheduling of the activities for reducing confusion and anxiety. The family of the patient has to be involved in the process of care as a part of the goal and they have to be enabled to utilize the patient information effectively for dealing with the patient confusion in regard to the limitations of the validation and stimulation of the patients thoughts (Hardy et al., 2014). In case of impaired verbal communication, the desired outcome is that the patient will be having effective understanding of communication and speech or should be enabled to use alternative communication methods. The goal of the nursing care is to promote the coordinated speech breathing. Nursing Care Strategies Nurses care strategies play a crucial role in the recognition of AD among the patients by assessment of the signs during the admission assessment procedure for achieving the goals. The nursing interventions aim at promoting the independence and function of the patient for the maximum possible duration (Aihw.gov.au, 2016). Other nursing objectives include promoting the safety of the patients, reduction of agitation and anxiety, improvement in communication and providing for intimacy and socialization. For disturbed thought process, the nursing intervention includes assessment of the ability of the patient for thought processing and observation of the memory changes, cognitive functioning, communication difficulty and disorientation. The rationale for this intervention is the assessment of the changes in status of the patient that may indicate progression of the deterioration or improvement of the condition (Laver et al., 2016). Assessment of the level of the cognitive disorders by the nurses includes the changes to orientation to the times, places, thinking skills and attention. The rationale for this intervention is to provide the basis for comparison or evaluation and influence the intervention choice. For chronic confusion, the nursing intervention includes assessment of the irreversible or reversible dementia, ability for interpretation of the environment, disturbances with orientation and intellectual thought processes. The rationale for this intervention includes determination of the extent and type of dementia for establishment of a care plan to enhance the emotional and cognitive functioning at the optimal levels. Terminating or avoiding the conversations or situations that are emotionally charged by the nurses is another form of nursing intervention. Anger should be avoided and expectations from the patient should be kept low according to their capability. The rationale for this is that catastrophic emotional responses are a result of the task failure w hen the patients feel that they are expected to perform beyond their ability and it results in anger and frustration (Jack et al., 2013). Impaired verbal communications include the nursing intervention of assessment of the ability of the patient to speak, sensory or cognitive impairment, neurologic disorders that affect the speech and presence of psychosis. Rationale for these nursing interventions includes identification of the speech patterns and problem areas for establishing a plan of care for the patient. Another intervention includes monitoring the patient for their nonverbal communication procedures that includes crying, pointing and smiling and they should be encouraged for the use of speech as possible. The rationale behind is that needs and feelings are expressed in case the process of speech is impaired. In such a situation, the patient can express his discomfort only by non-verbalization clues, striking out and excess mumbling (Smyth et al., 2013). Apart from these three major problems, the patient of AD suffers from the self-care deficit for hygiene and bathing. The nursing intervention for this problem in cludes provision of assistance to the patients for the maximum amount of activities while bathing and hygiene process. They should be provided with a hand towel and wash cloth for holding on. The rationale for this intervention is to promote self-esteem and independence for enabling them to control the situation. The patients like to grasp the hands of the nurse for support while bathing and using a washcloth will help them to provide a hold on as the means of support (Fightdementia.org.au, 2016). For patient care and management of AD, both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions are essential for optimal treatment of the psychological, behavioral and cognitive symptoms of the disease. References (2016).Businessinsider.com.au. Retrieved 21 August 2016, from https://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-scale-of-the-growing-tragedy-of-alzheimers-disease-has-been-reforecast-2014-11 {{meta.og.title}}. (2016).Healthdirect.gov.au. Retrieved 21 August 2016, from https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/alzheimers-disease Alzheimer's Association. (2013). 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.Alzheimer's dementia,9(2), 208-245. Alzheimer's Australia | Statistics. (2016).Fightdementia.org.au. Retrieved 21 August 2016, from https://www.fightdementia.org.au/about-dementia/statistics Burnham, S. C., Bourgeat, P., Dor, V., Savage, G., Brown, B., Laws, S., ... Masters, C. L. (2016). Clinical and cognitive trajectories in cognitively healthy elderly individuals with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) or Alzheimer's disease pathology: a longitudinal study.The Lancet Neurology,15(10), 1044-1053. Dementia (AIHW). (2016).Aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 21 August 2016, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/dementia/ Farina, N., Rusted, J., Tabet, N. (2014). The effect of exercise interventions on cognitive outcome in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.International Psychogeriatrics,26(01), 9-18. Hardy, J., Bogdanovic, N., Winblad, B., Portelius, E., Andreasen, N., Cedazoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Minguez, A., Zetterberg, H. (2014). Pathways to Alzheimer's disease.Journal of internal medicine,275(3), 296-303. Hartley, D., Blumenthal, T., Carrillo, M., DiPaolo, G., Esralew, L., Gardiner, K., ... Lott, I. (2015). Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: Common pathways, common goals.Alzheimer's Dementia,11(6), 700-709. Howard, R., McShane, R., Lindesay, J., Ritchie, C., Baldwin, A., Barber, R., ... Jones, R. (2015). Nursing home placement in the Donepezil and Memantine in Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease (DOMINO-AD) trial: secondary and post-hoc analyses.The Lancet Neurology,14(12), 1171-1181. Jack, C. (2013). How do heart disease and stroke become risk factors for Alzheimer's disease?.Neurological research. Jack, C. R., Knopman, D. S., Jagust, W. J., Petersen, R. C., Weiner, M. W., Aisen, P. S., ... Lesnick, T. G. (2013). Tracking pathophysiological processes in Alzheimer's disease: an updated hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers.The Lancet Neurology,12(2), 207-216. Karantzoulis, S., Galvin, J. E. (2014). Distinguishing Alzheimers disease from other major forms of dementia.Expert review of neurotherapeutics. Laver, K., Cumming, R. G., Dyer, S. M., Agar, M. R., Anstey, K. J., Beattie, E., ... Dietz, M. (2016). Clinical practice guidelines for dementia in Australia.Med J Aust,204(5), 191-193. Loewenstein, D., 2013. Assessment of Alzheimers Disease. InHandbook on the Neuropsychology of Aging and Dementia(pp. 271-280). Springer New York. Reitz, C., Mayeux, R. (2014). Alzheimer disease: epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, risk factors and biomarkers.Biochemical pharmacology,88(4), 640-651. Smyth, W., Fielding, E., Beattie, E., Gardner, A., Moyle, W., Franklin, S., ... MacAndrew, M. (2013). A survey-based study of knowledge of Alzheimers disease among health care staff.BMC geriatrics,13(1), 1. Sounding the Alarm on a Looming Public Health Threat | Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health. (2016).Ph.ucla.edu. Retrieved 21 August 2016, from https://ph.ucla.edu/news/magazine/2015/autumnwinter/article/sounding-alarm-looming-public-health-threat

Saturday, March 28, 2020

European Energy Market Essay Example

European Energy Market Paper 1. What do you think are the economic benefits of liberalizing the EU energy market? Who stands to gain the most from liberalization? -Economic benefits: The consumers would have freedom to choose their energy providers and probably could lower the costs. They will have improved service quality as they will have variety of producers. Energy providers can improve efficiency through innovation to be competitive which in turn will also reduce prices. Larger utilities should be able to realize economies of scale which will able them to compete more effectively. The consumers and businesses would gain the most from liberalization: Consumers could get the best lowest prices possible from producers; better production with the use of innovative technology. Business would have more business in the competitive market and could gain more profit. 2. What are the implications of liberalization for energy producers in the EU? How will the environment they face change after liberalization? What act ions will they have to take? -Implications: Replace the markets of its 27 member states with a single continent wide market for electricity and gas. The majority market shares would be acquired and dominated by a large single enterprise eg: Electric de France. -Changes in environment after liberalization: There are a lot of acquisitions and mergers in the energy markets. Politicians and governments try to protect their firms from other competitions with regulations. Bigger firms will try to acquire firms in local country. -Actions: Government would impose conditions to stop foreign companies from acquiring local companies. The local authorities would try to protect the local company advantages. 3. Why is the deintegration of large energy companies seen as such an important part of any attempt to liberalize the EU energy market? -There are vertically integrated producers consists of utilities that are producing, transmitting and selling power which made the markets lack of liquidity. The deintegration of biggest companies will encourage smaller companies to be active in the market. We will write a custom essay sample on European Energy Market specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on European Energy Market specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on European Energy Market specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer There will be fair competition and energy firms could compete with each other. -To reduce the barrier in doing cross-border transmission in national markets. Barrier to do cross-border transmission is the oppositions from various parties in the country which hinders the foreign companies to enter the national market in order to protect their integrated companies. If deintegration is done by the country, there would be more operators in the energy market that will encourage competition; increase affordability and dependability of the services. . Why do you think progress towards the liberalization of the EU energy market has been fairly slow so far? -The countries have been trying to protect their local small energy companies from the large foreign companies. -The governments and national companies try to protect their own industry from the foreign companies to maintain their market share in the industry. -Only the big firms are ready to face their competitors and increase their marke t share and power in Europe.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Ethical Issues in an Organization- Bribery Essays

Ethical Issues in an Organization- Bribery Essays Ethical Issues in an Organization- Bribery Essay Ethical Issues in an Organization- Bribery Essay Ethical Issues – Bribery In this paper on ethical issues, I will be presenting my perspective on the issue of Bribery in doing business. I will be summarizing three distinct articles from different sources, namely, Harvard Business Review, Bloomberg Businessweek and The Wall Street Journal, respectively. Later in this paper, I will provide some insight on how this aspect of corruption could potentially affect my business project for this course. The three articles that I have used in this paper are varied in their content. I have tried to use each article to portray an example of a potential bribe, the thin lines of definition for bribery, and how there are laws existing in this country to prevent the occurrence of bribery in doing business. The Harvard Business Review, for a brief time handled a forum in its blog titled ‘Good Decisions’ and in which I came across an article where an IT consultant wants to know if the sales commission that he was offered from a vendor he selected for a client is legitimate. This example is important because the vendor has already benefited from an impartial selection process that consultant did for his client. The controller of this forum, Clinton Krover lists out three reasons why it may not be right for the consultant to accept the ‘Commission’. As he points out, legally, the consultant represents his employer and so any ‘commission’ actually belongs to his employer and not him personally. It is another thing that the ‘commission’ itself may â€Å"violate bribery and kickback laws† notwithstanding the fact that the consultant may also violate his contractual obligations to his employers by a potential acceptance of the ‘commission’. The more obvious judgment with relation to this paper is with regards to ethics. An acceptance of the ‘commission’ would mean that the consultant would keep this vendor in his good books for future selection processes for his clients. Mr. Clinton provides an easy self questioning test to satisfy ethical guidelines with questions on how you may feel if â€Å"your employer and client found out about your commission? † and if one is â€Å"willing to ask your employer and client upfront if they object to you taking it? The author also points out the prudential reasons wherein the concerned person is at risk of a conflict of interest for indulging in such an act. Overall, it shows that bribery, in its forms of kickbacks or commissions can jeopardize an individual or a firm’s reputation and damage its business. In my next article in study from Bloomberg Businessweek, the author stresses on the need for a global standard on ethical practices and denounces the use of â€Å"Situation Ethics† in dealing with businesses abroad where standards of ethics in business are different than in the US. The author mentions the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) which makes it unlawful for American firms to indulge in bribery or kickbacks or any form of payment to secure or retain a business abroad. While American multinationals complain of losing competition to companies from other countries, maintenance of such ethical standards is required across all fronts in all parts of the world. The author lists out a few repercussions due to failure of maintaining such standards globally. As stated above, the reputation of a company is at stake each time an employee of the company or its subsidiary involves in corruption to win contracts abroad. The examples of Siemens and BAE systems is shocking and yet, as the author says, something company executives do not shy from to win large contracts. The author also stresses on the need for the CEO to fully spread through his chain of command, the importance of engaging in corruption free practices everywhere in the world. I see the need because an employee in a remote subsidiary abroad may not be aware of the strictness of the guidelines by which his company operates and a mistake by him costs the entire company a lot in reputation and in fines imposed by institutions of justice. As in the course textbook â€Å"10 day MBA†, wherein the author discourages the view of Milton Friedman’s â€Å"Businesses are in the business of maximizing shareholder’s value†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and that â€Å"Corporations pay the taxes that supports government’s social action†, this author also stresses on the importance of ethical business practice before a crude capitalistic view of profit making at any cost. In fact, the author endorses the idea that â€Å"good ethics create shareholder value†. My third article, from the Wall Street Journal showcases the stringent rules surrounding the conduct of businesses abroad enforced by the US Dept. of Justice. And while this article focuses on the foreign business aspect of corporations, I wanted to bring this up because of the nature of the bribes that involves â€Å"lavish dinners† and â€Å"holiday gifts† that also come under corrupt practices. The penalties imposed upon corporations regardless of their nationality, so long as they are registered in the US stock markets is also something that educates. The repercussion, beyond the multimillion dollar fines, is the loss of reputations and even the stepping down of CEO and board members because of the shareholder backlash because of such events. In conclusion, these articles do not differ on their opinion that bribery and similar corrupt acts demolish the reputation of an individual or a firm, and the reuslting loss of trust and business in the future. They do not differ in their examples from a legal microscope. Where they may differ is in their geographies but never in their belief in good ethical practices. And while foreign corrupt practices do not affect my business, the possibility of bribe in a business such is mine is highly possible because of our efforts to obtain customers to sell low cost authentic food to corporate workforce. Even to the extent of obtaining favoritism within corporations for marketing our services. It may also come in the form of biased contracts for our resources such as vegetables, meat and grains. These are the two major areas where I see a possibility of bribery as a corrupt act. The importance of ethics in business practices notwithstanding, I would like to quote from the first article â€Å"we judge ourselves by our motivations, but we judge others by their actions†. I would like to have my business be judged solely in terms of its quality of service and value. Abirami Rajendran [emailprotected] edu [ 1 ]. http://blogs. hbr. org/korver/2008/10/sales-commission-or-bribe-1. html [ 2 ]. businessweek. com/managing/content/feb2008/ca20080212_394828. htm? chan=careers_managing+index+page_top+stories [ 3 ]. http://online. wsj. com/article/SB124329477230952689. html

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Business Strategy in Corporate Giftware industry (PEST Analysis) Essay

Business Strategy in Corporate Giftware industry (PEST Analysis) - Essay Example Corporate giftware is an industry, which caters to almost all the industries across the board, in varying degrees. Sponsoring sports and other events, organizing hospitality events also form part of the corporate gift industry. The profitability of any industry, in general, depends upon five environmental factors enlisted by Porter as: ï‚ § Buyers'/Consumers' power: This is the power of industry’s buyers to secure discounts or negotiate added value to products. The consumer profile of Corporate gifts presents a two-dimensional picture. Personalized Corporate gifts are procured by different companies like Intel, Microsoft, Tesco, Asda, Starbucks, Pepsi, Virgin Airways etc. from the companies which are in the business of personalizing the promotional merchandise. This merchandise is then given away to the corporate clients, general customers, students, sales agents, company executives etc or on occasions like employee appreciation, retirement or special recognition etc. Therefore the actual buying power lies in the hands of companies which get such merchandise prepared with their logos/ messages. But to a certain extent, the ‘power’ is also exercised by the stakeholders, who are the end point receivers of such gifts. The power depends on buyer concentration, information and switching costs. The desires and tastes of stakeholder also keep on changing with times and they expect their companies to give away items which are in tune with the times.